Coronavirus Disease Biology and Previous Therapeutic Efforts

List of SARS/MERS Genes and their functions

This figure from the "Coronaviruses — drug discovery and therapeutic options" (A. Zumla et al., 2016) review article describes the genome of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The proteins targets are separated into two different categories: Non-structural and structural. There are four targets listed with effort for each category of protein.

Figure_ CoV

Additionally, Figure 2 of the same review article shows the virus-based and host-based therapeutic options within the cell. This figure visualizes host and viral targets and illustrates their functions.

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This information comes from Table 2 of the review article by A. Zumla et al., 2016.

Targeting Virus

Targeted Viral components Potential therapeutics
Nucleosides or Nucleotides Mycophenolic Acid
Base Sequence GUC in
loop region of CoV mRNA
Viral Replication complex K22
Long Viral dsRNA DRACO
PLpro GRL0617
3CLpro Lopinavir
RdRp Ribavirin, BCX4430,
Helicase Bananins, SSYA10-001
RBD of S1 Subunit of S protein NERS-4, MERS-27
S2 subunit of S HR2P and P1 peptides
Oligosaccharides onS Griffithsin
S expression siRNA*
E siRNA*, Hexamethylene amiloride
M siRNA*
N PJ34, intrabodies‡ and siRNA*
Accessory proteins siRNA*
Lipid membrane LJ001 and JL103

Targeting Host

Targeted host factors Potential Therapeutics
Interferon Response Recombinant interferons(interferon alfa, interferon beta, interferon gamma), Poly(I:C), Nitazoxanide
Cyclophilins Cyclosporine, alisporivir
Kinase signalling pathways Trametinib, selumetinib, everolimus,
rapacycin, dasatinib, imatinib
ACE2 P4 and P5 peptides, NAAE
DPP4 anti-DPP4 mAb
Endosomal protease (cathepsins) E64D, K11777, small molecule 5705213
Surface Protease (TMPRSS2) Camostat mesylate
Other host proteases (furin) dec-RVKR-CMK
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (ATP1A1) Chlorpromazine, Ouabain, bufalin
Endosomal acidification Chloroquine


Vaccine Type Examples
Live attenuated virus rMERS‐CoV‐ΔE
DNA plasmid MERS‐CoV S DNA
Viral vectors MVA‐MERS‐S, Ad5‐MERS‐S, Ad5‐MERS‐S1, Ad5‐S and Ad41‐S
Nanoparticles MERS‐CoV S‐containing nanoparticles
Virus‐like particles VRP‐S
Recombinant protein subunits S(RBD)‐Fc, S1(358–588)‐Fc, S(377–588)‐Fc and rRBD

Biological Processes of coronavirus infection

The targetscape of SARS virus within the cell is provided by Clarivate Analytics


The targetscape of MERS virus within the cell is provided by Clarivate Analytics, is shown below.


The targetscape of nCov provided by Clarivate Analytics, is also shown below.


A list of human targets related to SARS coronavirus is provided by Genecards using a keyword search query: Link

Top 30 relevant host targets predicted for SARS

Gene Symbol Description Category Gifts GC Id Relevance score GeneCards Links
ACE2 Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 Protein Coding 48 GC0XM015494 37.3 ACE2
CLEC4M C-Type Lectin Domain Family 4 Member M Protein Coding 39 GC19P007763 24.28 CLEC4M
CD209 CD209 Molecule Protein Coding 42 GC19M007739 23.22 CD209
TMPRSS2 Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 Protein Coding 42 GC21M041464 22.23 TMPRSS2
IFNA1 Interferon Alpha 1 Protein Coding 39 GC09P021478 22.2 IFNA1
CXCL10 C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 10 Protein Coding 43 GC04M076021 21.68 CXCL10
IFNG Interferon Gamma Protein Coding 48 GC12M068064 21.54 IFNG
TNF Tumor Necrosis Factor Protein Coding 52 GC06P033397 21.25 TNF
CCL5 C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 Protein Coding 43 GC17M035871 20.58 CCL5
IL6 Interleukin 6 Protein Coding 49 GC07P022765 20.04 IL6
IFNB1 Interferon Beta 1 Protein Coding 41 GC09M021077 19.99 IFNB1
CXCL8 C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 Protein Coding 42 GC04P073740 19.88 CXCL8
CCR5 C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 5 (Gene/Pseudogene) Protein Coding 47 GC03P046384 19.41 CCR5
CD40LG CD40 Ligand Protein Coding 47 GC0XP136649 19.35 CD40LG
SH2D3A SH2 Domain Containing 3A Protein Coding 35 GC19M006752 19.33 SH2D3A
MX1 MX Dynamin Like GTPase 1 Protein Coding 41 GC21P041420 19.09 MX1
CCL2 C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 Protein Coding 49 GC17P034255 18.9 CCL2
CXCL9 C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9 Protein Coding 38 GC04M076001 18.82 CXCL9
GPT Glutamic--Pyruvic Transaminase Protein Coding 41 GC08P144502 18.7 GPT
CTSL Cathepsin L Protein Coding 46 GC09P087725 18.4 CTSL
IL10 Interleukin 10 Protein Coding 47 GC01M206767 18.29 IL10
IRF3 Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Protein Coding 47 GC19M049659 18.24 IRF3
MBL2 Mannose Binding Lectin 2 Protein Coding 47 GC10M052760 18.07 MBL2
IL2 Interleukin 2 Protein Coding 46 GC04M122451 17.97 IL2
TMPRSS11D Transmembrane Serine Protease 11D Protein Coding 38 GC04M067820 17.25 TMPRSS11D
STAT1 Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription 1 Protein Coding 53 GC02M190964 17.16 STAT1
SARS1 Seryl-TRNA Synthetase 1 Protein Coding 35 GC01P109214 17.1 SARS1
FURIN Furin, Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme Protein Coding 47 GC15P090868 17.05 FURIN
CRP C-Reactive Protein Protein Coding 46 GC01M159715 16.85 CRP

List of experimentally verified coronavirus-host interactions

82 coronavirus-human interactions with experimental evidence are provided by PHISTO, involving 33 human proteins and 21 coronavirus proteins.

Data Download

Last update: May 6, 2020