Coronavirus Disease Biology and Previous Therapeutic Efforts

This information comes from Table 2 of the "Coronaviruses — drug discovery and therapeutic options" (A. Zumla et al., 2016) review article which describes the genome of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Targeting Virus

Targeted Viral components Potential therapeutics
Nucleosides or Nucleotides Mycophenolic Acid
Base Sequence GUC in
loop region of CoV mRNA
Viral Replication complex K22
Long Viral dsRNA DRACO
PLpro GRL0617
3CLpro Lopinavir
RdRp Ribavirin, BCX4430,
Helicase Bananins, SSYA10-001
RBD of S1 Subunit of S protein NERS-4, MERS-27
S2 subunit of S HR2P and P1 peptides
Oligosaccharides onS Griffithsin
S expression siRNA*
E siRNA*, Hexamethylene amiloride
M siRNA*
N PJ34, intrabodies‡ and siRNA*
Accessory proteins siRNA*
Lipid membrane LJ001 and JL103

Targeting Host

Targeted host factors Potential Therapeutics
Interferon Response Recombinant interferons(interferon alfa, interferon beta, interferon gamma), Poly(I:C), Nitazoxanide
Cyclophilins Cyclosporine, alisporivir
Kinase signalling pathways Trametinib, selumetinib, everolimus,
rapacycin, dasatinib, imatinib
ACE2 P4 and P5 peptides, NAAE
DPP4 anti-DPP4 mAb
Endosomal protease (cathepsins) E64D, K11777, small molecule 5705213
Surface Protease (TMPRSS2) Camostat mesylate
Other host proteases (furin) dec-RVKR-CMK
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (ATP1A1) Chlorpromazine, Ouabain, bufalin
Endosomal acidification Chloroquine


Vaccine Type Examples
Live attenuated virus rMERS‐CoV‐ΔE
DNA plasmid MERS‐CoV S DNA
Viral vectors MVA‐MERS‐S, Ad5‐MERS‐S, Ad5‐MERS‐S1, Ad5‐S and Ad41‐S
Nanoparticles MERS‐CoV S‐containing nanoparticles
Virus‐like particles VRP‐S
Recombinant protein subunits S(RBD)‐Fc, S1(358–588)‐Fc, S(377–588)‐Fc and rRBD

List of experimentally verified coronavirus-host interactions

82 coronavirus-human interactions with experimental evidence are provided by PHISTO, involving 33 human proteins and 21 coronavirus proteins.

Data Download

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Last update: September 15, 2022