COVID-19 preclinical studies

Preclinical In Vitro Studies

The following is an updated list of studies with published in vitro experimental results. The studies were complied using several well known preprint and publication databases relating to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Drug names and numerical EC50/IC50 results were extracted using simple NLP scripts along with a correlation label. An indirect correlation means that although a drug name was extracted, it could not be mapped to the experimental value using our current algorithm. It should be noted that this list is to be used only as a reference for further investigation, and the drug names and extracted numerical values are neither 100% accurate nor complete.


We are making our best efforts to collect SARS-CoV-2 in vitro experimental results from recent publications. This dataset will be updated continuously.

Last Updated: October 15, 2020

Rank_ID Drug Name SARS-CoV-2 EC50/IC50(μM) CC50(μM) SI
1 Nafamostat 0.0022 >25 11363
2 Amuvatinib 0.02 0.06 3
3 Apilimod 0.023 N/A N/A
4 Apilimod 0.023 N/A N/A
5 Carboxyamidotriazole 0.09 0.11 1.22
6 Ouabain 0.097 50 515.5
7 Pristimerin 0.11 1.1 10.00
8 Z-FA-FMK 0.13 N/A N/A
9 VBY -825 0.14 N/A N/A
10 MLN-3897 0.14 N/A N/A
11 Digitoxin 0.16 >50 312.5
12 Digoxin 0.19 >50 256.61
13 AI-10-49 0.19 6.58 34.63
14 Z LVG CHN2 0.19 N/A N/A
15 Tyrphostin 0.2 1.36 6.8
16 CAA-0225 0.2 N/A N/A
17 Polidocanol 0.22 10.3 46.82
18 MDL 28170 0.22 N/A N/A
19 Digitoxin 0.23 >50 214.1
20 Salinomycin sodium 0.24 >50 >211
21 VLX600 0.24 0.06 0.25
22 GSK2606414 0.25 70.35 281.4
23 Cathepsin Inhibitor 1 0.25 N/A N/A
24 SL-11128 0.25 N/A N/A
25 Niclosamide 0.28 >50 176.65
26 VBY -825 0.3 N/A N/A
27 Emetine 0.46 56.46 122.74
28 Salinomycin sodium 0.5 >50 100
29 Calpeptin 0.5 N/A N/A
30 ONO 5334 0.5 N/A N/A
31 Alvocidib 0.59 0.06 0.1
32 Cetylpyridinium chloride 0.62 0.66 1.06
33 Remdesivir 0.62 N/A N/A
34 Pevonedistat 0.63 222.44 353.08
35 VPS34-IN1 0.63 10 15.87
36 Ethaverine 0.64 11.04 17.25
37 Camostat 0.64 >20 >31.25
38 Berzosertib 0.71 11.1 15.63
39 Digoxin 0.72 >50 69.4
40 Dapivirine 0.73 5 6.85
41 SDZ-62-434 0.75 N/A N/A
42 Remdesivir 0.77 >100 >129.87
43 AC1NDSS5 0.77 0.89 1.16
44 SB-612111 0.77 3.67 4.77
45 Thioguanosine 0.78 0.63 0.81
46 Niclosamide 0.84 >50 59.5
47 LY2228820 0.87 56.2 64.6
48 Hexachlorophene 0.9 19.3 21.55
49 AMG-2674 0.95 N/A N/A
50 YH-1238 0.95 N/A N/A
51 Papaverine 1.1 4.49 4.08
52 STF-62247 1.1 11.2 10.18
53 Hanfangchin A 1.1 N/A N/A
54 Elopiprazole 1.1 N/A N/A
55 Astemizole 1.1 N/A N/A
56 Chloroquine 1.13 >100 >88.5
57 Nelfinavir 1.13 24.32 21.52
58 SB-616234-A 1.2 N/A N/A
59 KW 8232 1.2 N/A N/A
60 N-tert-Butylisoquine 1.2 N/A N/A
61 Remdesivir 1.3 >50 38.5
62 Z-Gly-Leu-Phe-chloromethyl ketone 1.3 N/A N/A
63 ZK-93423 1.34 0.91 0.68
64 VPS34 Inhibitor 1 1.4 N/A N/A
65 Almitrine 1.42 102.2 71.97
66 Hexachlorophene 1.48 >50 33.8
67 Auranofin 1.5 low toxicity N/A
68 Sorafenib 1.55 1.17 0.75
69 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine 1.6 N/A N/A
70 Posaconazole 1.61 14.64 9.09
71 Octenidine 1.65 2.4 1.45
72 Regorafenib 1.67 0.97 0.58
73 Thimerosal 1.69 13.52 8
74 Tioguanine 1.71 2.21 1.29
75 Hematoporphyrin 1.85 160.08 86.53
76 Chlormidazole 1.89 0.88 0.47
77 Ivermectin 2 low toxicity N/A
78 Balicatib 2 N/A N/A
79 Calpain 2 N/A N/A
80 Methylene blue 2.03 7.25 3.57
81 Proscillaridin 2.04 >50 >24.54
82 Nitazoxanide 2.12 35.53 >16.76
83 Azithromycine 2.12 >40 >19
84 Ketoconazole 2.36 28.62 12.13
85 alpha-L- Arabinopyrano se 2.4 N/A N/A
86 Homoharringtonine 2.55 59.75 23.43
87 Ravuconazole 2.76 12.75 4.62
88 LDK378 2.86 6.84 2.39
89 Tetrandrine 3 14.92 4.97
90 Alisporivir 3.1 >20 >6.45
91 ML414 3.2 N/A N/A
92 Isoosajin 3.22 9.89 3.07
93 Osimertinib mesylate 3.26 13.23 4.05
94 LGK-974 3.27 7.61 2.33
95 Mibampator 3.28 8.66 2.64
96 Bazedoxifene 3.44 14.97 4.35
97 MCOPPB 3.5 N/A N/A
98 GW 803430 3.5 N/A N/A
99 IT1t dihydrochloride 3.5 N/A N/A
100 Oxyclozanide 3.71 >50 >13.49
101 Lusutrombopag 3.78 14.61 3.87
102 S-15176 difumarate salt 3.8 N/A N/A
103 Osajin 3.87 11.44 2.95
104 Hydroxyprogesterone caproate 3.87 >50 12.9
105 Dronedarone HCl 3.92 8.75 2.23
106 Avasimibe 3.93 13.71 3.49
107 Amodiaquin dihydrochloride 4 N/A N/A
108 Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 4.03 11.88 2.94
109 Tilorone 4.09 19.67 4.81
110 Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate 4.17 >40 >10
111 Ciclesonide 4.33 >50 >11.56
112 Cepharanthine 4.47 >50 >11.18
113 N- Methylspiperon e hydrochloride 4.5 N/A N/A
114 Isopomiferin 4.51 14.25 3.16
115 Anidulafugin 4.64 >50 >10.78
116 Ebselen 4.67 low toxicity N/A
117 Cyclosporine 4.69 >50 10.5
118 Amodiaquin Dihydrochloride Dihydrate 4.94 34.42 6.97
119 Penfluridol 5.01 8.77 1.75
120 Opipramol dihydrochloride 5.05 >40 >7.9
121 Quinacrine hydrochloride monohydrate 5.11 >40 >7.8
122 CVL218 5.12 91.05 17.78
123 Amodiaquine hydrochloride 5.15 >50 >9.71
124 Imatinib Mesylate 5.32 >30.86 >5.80
125 Fluspirilene 5.32 30.33 5.71
126 Clomiphene Citrate 5.36 15.01 2.8
127 Alprostadil 5.39 >40 >7.4
128 Pexidartinib 5.43 41.53 7.65
129 JTV519 Hemifumarate 5.5 N/A N/A
130 Amodiaquin Hydrochloride 5.64 >38.63 >6.84
131 Lonafarnib 5.68 10.71 1.89
132 Avatrombopag 5.71 20.86 3.65
133 Cyclosporine 5.82 >50 >8.59
134 Apixaban 5.91 18.07 3.06
135 Proscillaridin 5.95 >50 8.4
136 IPAG 5.96 11.48 1.93
137 JTE-013 5.97 16.45 2.76
138 Drotaverine 6.07 9 1.48
139 Hydroxyprogesterone caproate 6.3 >50 7.93
140 Perhexiline maleate 6.38 8.67 1.36
141 Triparanol 6.41 21.21 3.31
142 Ivacaftor 6.57 12.47 1.9
143 Droloxifene((E)-3-Hydroxy tamoxifen) 6.6 15.82 2.4
144 Abemaciclib 6.62 >50 >7.56
145 Thioridazine hydrochloride 6.69 15.96 2.39
146 Gilteritinib 6.76 37.16 5.5
147 Oxyclozanide 6.78 >50 7.37
148 Ebastine 6.92 15.42 2.23
149 Triparanol 7.05 14.73 2.09
150 IKK-2 Inhibitor VIII 7.1 N/A N/A
151 Mequitazine 7.28 27.34 3.76
152 Clomipramine Hydrochloride 7.59 >29.68 >3.91
153 Berbamine hydrochloride 7.87 >50 >6.35
154 Clemastine fumarate 7.9 N/A N/A
155 GMC 2-29 7.9 N/A N/A
156 Thiethylperazine Maleate 8.02 18.37 2.29
157 Mefloquine Hydrochloride 8.06 18.53 2.3
158 Eltrombopag 8.27 >50 >6.05
159 Eltrombopag 8.38 48.85 5.83
160 Saquinavir 8.83 44.43 5.03
161 NSC 33994 8.9 N/A N/A
162 Rescimetol 8.9 N/A N/A
163 Fluphenazine Dihydrochloride 8.98 20.02 2.23
164 Tamoxifen Citrate 8.98 37.96 4.23
165 Lopinavir 9.12 >50 >5.18
166 Loperamide 9.27 29.26 3.16
167 Atazanavir 9.36 >81 >8.65
168 Lu AE58054 hydrochloride Chlorprothixen e 10 N/A N/A
169 Methdilazine hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
170 Methotrimepra zine maleate 10 N/A N/A
171 Piperacetazine 10 N/A N/A
172 Difeterol 10 N/A N/A
173 (R)-(-)-L Y 426965 dihydrochloride Loperamide hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
174 Naltrindole isothiocyanate hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
175 AM1241 10 N/A N/A
176 CpdD hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
177 SB 271046 hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
178 GMC 2-113 10 N/A N/A
179 Imatinib 10 N/A N/A
180 Duloxetine hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
181 Trifluomeprazi ne 2- butenedioate Asteriscunolide D Genz-123346 (free base) 10 N/A N/A
182 Maprotiline hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
183 Deserpidine 10 N/A N/A
184 Amiodarone hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
185 Melitracen hydrochloride 10 N/A N/A
186 (+/-) - Fluoxetine 10 N/A N/A
187 Flunarizine 10 N/A N/A
188 Proglumetacin DMP 777 Dexanabinol 10 N/A N/A
189 Promethazine Hydrochloride 10.44 >42.59 >4.08
190 Ciclesonide 10.64 >50 4.7
191 LDE225 10.67 2.26 0.21
192 Arbidol 10.7 >40 >3.7
193 Toremifene Citrate 11.3 20.51 1.81
194 Ivacaftor 11.55 30.38 2.63
195 N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium 46chitosan chloride 12.5 158 12.6
196 Loperamide hydrochloride 12.53 47.4 3.78
197 Bazedoxifene 12.63 27.84 2.2
198 DCPIB 12.78 24.55 1.92
199 Tipranavir 13.34 76.8 5.76
200 Dihydrogambogic acid 13.37 9.85 0.74
201 Tetrandrine 13.5 22.3 1.71
202 AMG-9810 14.97 14.22 0.95
203 Loratadine 15.13 28.33 1.87
204 Brexpiprazole 16.04 50.57 3.15
205 Erconazole Vetranal 16.14 41.46 2.57
206 N3 16.77 >133 >7.93
207 CC-223 16.78 9.49 0.57
208 CBIPES 17.05 13.4 0.79
209 Omeprazole 17.06 >40 >2.35
210 Anidulafungin 17.23 >50 2.9
211 Lidoflazine 17.39 31.91 1.83
212 Benztropine Mesylate 17.79 >50 >2.81
213 Loteprednol etabonate 17.92 49.03 2.74
214 Vatalanib 18.27 64.18 3.51
215 Adoprazine 18.59 75.9 4.08
216 PH-797804 18.85 19.97 1.06
217 Cloconazole 18.92 33 1.74
218 BP-897 18.95 30.03 1.58
219 Harringtonine 19 0.07 0
220 Flunarizine 19.05 136.76 7.18
221 PF-670462 19.23 8.24 0.43
222 Oxprenolol hydrochloride 20.22 >40 >2
223 Etifoxine 20.64 43.53 2.11
224 Oxiconazole 20.82 26.36 1.27
225 Lopinavir 21.7 >50 2.3
226 Dolutegravir 22.04 >40 >1.8
227 Nafamostat 22.5 >100 >4.44
228 Clemizole hydrochloride 23.94 >40 >1.7
229 Phenazopyridine 28 >50 >1.79
230 Cepharanthine 30 >50 1.67
231 Amprenavir 31.32 >81 >2.59
232 Sulfadoxine 35.37 >40 >1.13
233 Abemaciclib 43.7 >50 1.1
234 Darunavir 46.41 >81 >1.75
235 Chloroquine Phosphate 46.8 >50 >1.07
236 Indinavir 59.14 >81 >1.37
237 Favipiravir 61.88 >400 >6.46
238 Chloroquine 69.2 >250 3.6
239 Penciclovir 95.96 >400 >4.17
240 Remdesivir 100 N/A N/A
241 Ribavirin 109.5 >400 >3.65
242 Lanatoside C >50 >50 1
243 Quinacrine hydrochloride >50 14.71 <0.29
244 Berbamine hydrochloride >50 >50 1
245 Gilteritinib >50 >50 1
246 Amodiaquine dihydrochloride >50 >50 1
247 Mefloquine >50 >50 1
248 Ouabain <0.1 >50 633
249 NSC319726 <0.02 <0.02 1
  • Cell lines and assay conditions used in various studies may be different.
  • The current table is ranked by potency.

Reference:

  1. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell research, 2020, 30(3): 269-271.

  2. A data-driven drug repositioning framework discovered a potential therapeutic agent targeting COVID-19. bioRxiv, 2020.

  3. FDA approved drugs with broad anti-coronaviral activity inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. bioRxiv, 2020.

  4. HTCC as a highly effective polymeric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, bioRxiv, 2020.

  5. Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs, bioRxiv, 2020.

  6. The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

  7. Nelfinavir inhibits replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in vitro

  8. Structure of Mpro from COVID-19 virus and discovery of its inhibitors

  9. Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro

  10. The FDA- approved gold drug Auranofin inhibits novel coronavirus (SARS- COV-2) replication and attenuates inflammation in human cells

  11. Identification of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro cellular toxicity in human (Caco-2) cells using a large scale drug repurposing collection

  12. In vitro screening of a FDA approved chemical library reveals potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication

  13. Comparative analysis of antiviral efficacy of FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells: Nafamostat is the most potent antiviral drug candidate

  14. Drug Repurposing Screen for Compounds Inhibiting the Cytopathic Effect of SARS-CoV-2

  15. A Large-scale Drug Repositioning Survey for SARS-CoV-2 Antivirals