COVID-19 preclinical studies

Preclinical In Vitro Studies

The following is an updated list of studies with published in vitro experimental results. The studies were complied using several well known preprint and publication databases relating to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Drug names and numerical EC50/IC50 results were extracted using simple NLP scripts along with a correlation label. An indirect correlation means that although a drug name was extracted, it could not be mapped to the experimental value using our current algorithm. It should be noted that this list is to be used only as a reference for further investigation, and the drug names and extracted numerical values are neither 100% accurate nor complete.


We are making our best efforts to collect SARS-CoV-2 in vitro experimental results from recent publications. This dataset will be updated continuously.

Last Updated: April 24, 2020

Rank_ID Drug Name SARS-CoV-2 EC50/IC50(μM) CC50(μM) SI
1 NSC319726 <0.02 <0.02 1
2 Amuvatinib 0.02 0.06 3
3 Carboxyamidotriazole 0.09 0.11 1.22
4 Ouabain 0.097 50 515.5
5 Digoxin 0.19 >50 256.61
6 AI-10-49 0.19 6.58 34.63
7 Tyrphostin 0.2 1.36 6.8
8 Polidocanol 0.22 10.3 46.82
9 Digitoxin 0.23 >50 214.1
10 Salinomycin sodium 0.24 >50 >211
11 VLX600 0.24 0.06 0.25
12 GSK2606414 0.25 70.35 281.4
13 Niclosamide 0.28 >50 176.65
14 Emetine 0.46 56.46 122.74
15 Alvocidib 0.59 0.06 0.1
16 Cetylpyridinium chloride 0.62 0.66 1.06
17 Pevonedistat 0.63 222.44 353.08
18 Ethaverine 0.64 11.04 17.25
19 Camostat 0.64 >20 >31.25
20 Dapivirine 0.73 5 6.85
21 Remdesivir 0.77 >100 >129.87
22 AC1NDSS5 0.77 0.89 1.16
23 SB-612111 0.77 3.67 4.77
24 Thioguanosine 0.78 0.63 0.81
25 LY2228820 0.87 56.2 64.6
26 Hexachlorophene 0.9 19.3 21.55
27 Papaverine 1.1 4.49 4.08
28 Chloroquine 1.13 >100 >88.5
29 Nelfinavir 1.13 24.32 21.52
30 ZK-93423 1.34 0.91 0.68
31 Almitrine 1.42 102.2 71.97
32 Auranofin 1.5 low toxicity N/A
33 Sorafenib 1.55 1.17 0.75
34 Posaconazole 1.61 14.64 9.09
35 Octenidine 1.65 2.4 1.45
36 Regorafenib 1.67 0.97 0.58
37 Thimerosal 1.69 13.52 8
38 Tioguanine 1.71 2.21 1.29
39 Hematoporphyrin 1.85 160.08 86.53
40 Chlormidazole 1.89 0.88 0.47
41 Ivermectin 2 low toxicity N/A
42 Methylene blue 2.03 7.25 3.57
43 Proscillaridin 2.04 >50 >24.54
44 Nitazoxanide 2.12 35.53 >16.76
45 Azithromycine 2.12 >40 >19
46 Ketoconazole 2.36 28.62 12.13
47 Homoharringtonine 2.55 59.75 23.43
48 Ravuconazole 2.76 12.75 4.62
49 LDK378 2.86 6.84 2.39
50 Tetrandrine 3 14.92 4.97
51 Alisporivir 3.1 >20 >6.45
52 Isoosajin 3.22 9.89 3.07
53 Osimertinib mesylate 3.26 13.23 4.05
54 LGK-974 3.27 7.61 2.33
55 Mibampator 3.28 8.66 2.64
56 Bazedoxifene 3.44 14.97 4.35
57 Oxyclozanide 3.71 >50 >13.49
58 Lusutrombopag 3.78 14.61 3.87
59 Osajin 3.87 11.44 2.95
60 Dronedarone HCl 3.92 8.75 2.23
61 Avasimibe 3.93 13.71 3.49
62 Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 4.03 11.88 2.94
63 Tilorone 4.09 19.67 4.81
64 Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate 4.17 >40 >10
65 Ciclesonide 4.33 >50 >11.56
66 Cepharanthine 4.47 >50 >11.18
67 Isopomiferin 4.51 14.25 3.16
68 Anidulafugin 4.64 >50 >10.78
69 Ebselen 4.67 low toxicity N/A
70 Amodiaquin Dihydrochloride Dihydrate 4.94 34.42 6.97
71 Penfluridol 5.01 8.77 1.75
72 Opipramol dihydrochloride 5.05 >40 >7.9
73 Quinacrine hydrochloride monohydrate 5.11 >40 >7.8
74 CVL218 5.12 91.05 17.78
75 Amodiaquine hydrochloride 5.15 >50 >9.71
76 Imatinib Mesylate 5.32 >30.86 >5.80
77 Fluspirilene 5.32 30.33 5.71
78 Clomiphene Citrate 5.36 15.01 2.8
79 Alprostadil 5.39 >40 >7.4
80 Pexidartinib 5.43 41.53 7.65
81 Amodiaquin Hydrochloride 5.64 >38.63 >6.84
82 Lonafarnib 5.68 10.71 1.89
83 Avatrombopag 5.71 20.86 3.65
84 Cyclosporine 5.82 >50 >8.59
85 Apixaban 5.91 18.07 3.06
86 IPAG 5.96 11.48 1.93
87 JTE-013 5.97 16.45 2.76
88 Drotaverine 6.07 9 1.48
89 Hydroxyprogesterone caproate 6.3 >50 7.93
90 Perhexiline maleate 6.38 8.67 1.36
91 Triparanol 6.41 21.21 3.31
92 Ivacaftor 6.57 12.47 1.9
93 Droloxifene((E)-3-Hydroxy tamoxifen) 6.6 15.82 2.4
94 Abemaciclib 6.62 >50 >7.56
95 Thioridazine hydrochloride 6.69 15.96 2.39
96 Gilteritinib 6.76 37.16 5.5
97 Ebastine 6.92 15.42 2.23
98 Triparanol 7.05 14.73 2.09
99 Mequitazine 7.28 27.34 3.76
100 Clomipramine Hydrochloride 7.59 >29.68 >3.91
101 Berbamine hydrochloride 7.87 >50 >6.35
102 Thiethylperazine Maleate 8.02 18.37 2.29
103 Mefloquine Hydrochloride 8.06 18.53 2.3
104 Eltrombopag 8.27 >50 >6.05
105 Saquinavir 8.83 44.43 5.03
106 Fluphenazine Dihydrochloride 8.98 20.02 2.23
107 Tamoxifen Citrate 8.98 37.96 4.23
108 Lopinavir 9.12 >50 >5.18
109 Loperamide 9.27 29.26 3.16
110 Atazanavir 9.36 >81 >8.65
111 Promethazine Hydrochloride 10.44 >42.59 >4.08
112 LDE225 10.67 2.26 0.21
113 Arbidol 10.7 >40 >3.7
114 Toremifene Citrate 11.3 20.51 1.81
115 N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium 46chitosan chloride 12.5 158 12.6
116 DCPIB 12.78 24.55 1.92
117 Tipranavir 13.34 76.8 5.76
118 Dihydrogambogic acid 13.37 9.85 0.74
119 AMG-9810 14.97 14.22 0.95
120 Loratadine 15.13 28.33 1.87
121 Brexpiprazole 16.04 50.57 3.15
122 Erconazole Vetranal 16.14 41.46 2.57
123 N3 16.77 >133 >7.93
124 CC-223 16.78 9.49 0.57
125 CBIPES 17.05 13.4 0.79
126 Omeprazole 17.06 >40 >2.35
127 Lidoflazine 17.39 31.91 1.83
128 Benztropine Mesylate 17.79 >50 >2.81
129 Loteprednol etabonate 17.92 49.03 2.74
130 Vatalanib 18.27 64.18 3.51
131 Adoprazine 18.59 75.9 4.08
132 PH-797804 18.85 19.97 1.06
133 Cloconazole 18.92 33 1.74
134 BP-897 18.95 30.03 1.58
135 Harringtonine 19 0.07 0
136 Flunarizine 19.05 136.76 7.18
137 PF-670462 19.23 8.24 0.43
138 Oxprenolol hydrochloride 20.22 >40 >2
139 Etifoxine 20.64 43.53 2.11
140 Oxiconazole 20.82 26.36 1.27
141 Dolutegravir 22.04 >40 >1.8
142 Nafamostat 22.5 >100 >4.44
143 Clemizole hydrochloride 23.94 >40 >1.7
144 Phenazopyridine 28 >50 >1.79
145 Amprenavir 31.32 >81 >2.59
146 Sulfadoxine 35.37 >40 >1.13
147 Darunavir 46.41 >81 >1.75
148 Chloroquine Phosphate 46.8 >50 >1.07
149 Indinavir 59.14 >81 >1.37
150 Favipiravir 61.88 >400 >6.46
151 Penciclovir 95.96 >400 >4.17
152 Ribavirin 109.5 >400 >3.65
153 Lanatoside C >50 >50 1
154 Quinacrine hydrochloride >50 14.71 <0.29
  • Cell lines and assay conditions used in various studies may be different.
  • The current table is ranked by potency.

Reference:

  1. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell research, 2020, 30(3): 269-271.

  2. A data-driven drug repositioning framework discovered a potential therapeutic agent targeting COVID-19. bioRxiv, 2020.

  3. FDA approved drugs with broad anti-coronaviral activity inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. bioRxiv, 2020.

  4. HTCC as a highly effective polymeric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, bioRxiv, 2020.

  5. Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs, bioRxiv, 2020.

  6. The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

  7. Nelfinavir inhibits replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in vitro

  8. Structure of Mpro from COVID-19 virus and discovery of its inhibitors

  9. Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro

  10. The FDA- approved gold drug Auranofin inhibits novel coronavirus (SARS- COV-2) replication and attenuates inflammation in human cells

  11. Identification of inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro cellular toxicity in human (Caco-2) cells using a large scale drug repurposing collection

  12. In vitro screening of a FDA approved chemical library reveals potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication


Last update: July 22, 2020